What is Ovarian Cancer?
Obstetrics and Gynecology

What is Ovarian Cancer?

    Ovarian cancer is a complex and often challenging disease that affects thousands of women worldwide. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore various aspects of ovarian cancer, including its definition, symptoms, risk factors, early diagnosis, staging, treatment options, new approaches, quality of life after treatment, and frequently asked questions. By the end of this article, you will have a thorough understanding of ovarian cancer and the resources available for support and prevention.

    What is Ovarian Cancer?

    Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the ovaries, which are part of the female reproductive system. The ovaries produce eggs and release hormones, making them vital organs in a woman's body. When cells in the ovaries begin to grow uncontrollably and form tumors, it leads to ovarian cancer. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

    What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer?

    Recognizing the symptoms of ovarian cancer is crucial for early detection and effective treatment. Some common symptoms include:

    • • Abdominal Pain: Persistent pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis.
    • • Bloating: Frequent or long-lasting abdominal bloating.
    • • Changes in Bowel Habits: Unexplained changes in bowel movements, such as diarrhea or constipation.
    • • Frequent Urination: The need to urinate more often than usual.
    • • Appetite Changes: A sudden loss of appetite or feeling full quickly.
    • • Fatigue: Unexplained fatigue or low energy levels.
    • • Menstrual Changes: Irregularities in the menstrual cycle.

    It's essential to remember that these symptoms can overlap with other common conditions, so it's crucial to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any of them persistently.

    Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors: Genetic or Environmental?

    Ovarian cancer risk factors can be categorized into genetic and environmental factors. While some risk factors are beyond our control, others can be managed or mitigated. Let's explore both categories:

    Genetic Risk Factors

    • Family History: Having close relatives with ovarian or breast cancer increases your risk.
    • BRCA Gene Mutations: Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer.
    • Lynch Syndrome: This genetic condition increases the risk of several cancers, including ovarian cancer.
    • Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC): Another genetic syndrome that raises the risk of ovarian cancer.

    Environmental Risk Factors

    • Age: Ovarian cancer is more common in women over 50.
    • Reproductive History: Women who have never given birth or had their first child after age 35 may have an increased risk.
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Long-term use of estrogen-only HRT may raise the risk.
    • Obesity: Being overweight or obese can increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

    Is Early Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer Possible?

    Early diagnosis of ovarian cancer can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment. Several diagnostic methods are available:

    • • Pelvic Exam: A physical examination to check for abnormalities in the pelvic area.
    • • Transvaginal Ultrasound: A specialized ultrasound to detect ovarian tumors.
    • • CA-125 Blood Test: Measures a protein often elevated in ovarian cancer, although it's not definitive.
    • • CT Scan: Provides detailed images of the abdomen and pelvis.
    • • Biopsy: A sample of tissue is taken for laboratory testing.

    It's important to consult a healthcare professional if you have symptoms or risk factors, as they can recommend appropriate screening tests.

    Staging of Ovarian Cancer

    Once ovarian cancer is diagnosed, it is staged to determine its extent and severity. Staging helps guide treatment decisions and provides prognostic information. Ovarian cancer stages include:

    • • Stage I: Cancer is confined to the ovaries.
    • • Stage II: Cancer has spread to other pelvic organs.
    • • Stage III: Cancer has spread to the abdominal cavity or lymph nodes.
    • • Stage IV: Cancer has metastasized to distant organs.

    The stage of ovarian cancer at diagnosis significantly impacts treatment options and outcomes.

    Surgical, Radiation, and Chemotherapy Treatments for Ovarian Cancer

    The treatment of ovarian cancer typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy:

    Surgical Treatment

    • Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus.
    • Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes.
    • Debulking Surgery: Reducing the size of tumors in advanced stages.
    •Lymph Node Dissection: Removal of lymph nodes for staging.

    Radiation Therapy

    Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to target and destroy cancer cells. It is not the primary treatment for ovarian cancer but may be used in specific cases.


    Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or inhibit their growth. It can be administered intravenously or directly into the abdominal cavity.

    New Treatment Approaches for Ovarian Cancer

    Advancements in medical research have led to new treatment approaches for ovarian cancer, offering hope for improved outcomes:


    Immunotherapy harnesses the body's immune system to target and destroy cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promise in clinical trials for ovarian cancer.

    Targeted Therapy

    Targeted therapies are drugs that specifically target cancer cells, sparing healthy ones. They can be effective, especially in cases with specific genetic mutations.

    PARP Inhibitors

    Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are drugs that block DNA repair in cancer cells, leading to their death. They have been approved for certain ovarian cancer patients.

    Quality of Life After Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition and Exercise

    After undergoing treatment for ovarian cancer, maintaining a healthy lifestyle is crucial to improving overall quality of life:


    • Balanced Diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins supports recovery.
    • Hydration: Staying well-hydrated is essential, especially during and after treatment.
    • Supplements: Discuss with your healthcare team if you need vitamin or mineral supplements.


    • Physical Activity: Engage in regular, moderate exercise to boost energy levels and reduce fatigue.
    • Strength Training: Building muscle can help regain strength and stamina.
    • Yoga or Meditation: These practices can improve mental and emotional well-being.

    Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cancer

    Let's address some common questions about ovarian cancer:

    Is Pregnancy Possible After Ovarian Cancer?

    Pregnancy after ovarian cancer treatment is possible but requires careful planning and consultation with a healthcare provider. Fertility preservation options may be available before treatment.

    At What Stage of Ovarian Cancer Is It Most Treatable?

    Ovarian cancer is most treatable when diagnosed at an early stage (Stage I or II). Early diagnosis increases the likelihood of successful treatment and long-term survival.

    What Is the Life Expectancy for Someone with Ovarian Cancer?

    Life expectancy varies depending on the stage at diagnosis, the type of ovarian cancer, and the individual's overall health. Advances in treatment have improved survival rates in recent years.

    What Are the Side Effects of Medications Used in Ovarian Cancer Treatment?

    Treatment-related side effects vary depending on the type of treatment. Common side effects include nausea, fatigue, hair loss, and changes in blood counts.

    Side Effects of Chemotherapy Drugs

    Chemotherapy may cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and fatigue. These side effects can often be managed with medications and lifestyle adjustments.

    Side Effects of Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy

    Side effects of targeted therapy and immunotherapy can include skin reactions, diarrhea, and fatigue. Monitoring and managing these side effects is essential for the best treatment experience.

    How Can I Reduce My Risk of Ovarian Cancer?

    While some risk factors are beyond your control, you can take steps to reduce your risk:

    • Oral Contraceptives: Some studies suggest that long-term use of birth control pills may reduce the risk.
    • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Having children and breastfeeding may lower the risk.
    • Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a healthy weight, eat a balanced diet, and engage in regular physical activity.
    • Genetic Counseling: If you have a family history of ovarian cancer, consider genetic counseling and testing.

    Where Can I Seek Help or Support for Someone with Ovarian Cancer?

    Support is crucial for individuals and families dealing with ovarian cancer. Seek assistance from:

    • Cancer Support Organizations: Organizations like the American Cancer Society provide information and resources.
    • Support Groups: Joining a support group can provide emotional support and valuable insights.
    • Medical Team: Consult with your healthcare providers for guidance and recommendations.

    Ovarian cancer is a complex disease with various risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options. Early detection, advances in treatment approaches, and a focus on quality of life after treatment offer hope to those affected by this condition. By understanding the key aspects of ovarian cancer, you can make informed decisions about prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Remember that seeking support and guidance from healthcare professionals and support networks is essential for a holistic approach to ovarian cancer management.

    The content of the page is for informational purposes only, please consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

    About the Author

    Aydan BİRİ

    Prof. M.D. Aydan BİRİ

    Written by on 07.09.2023

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