What is Fibroadenoma? Symptoms and Treatment
Obstetrics and Gynecology

What is Fibroadenoma? Symptoms and Treatment

    Fibroadenoma is a common but often misunderstood condition that affects many individuals, primarily women. While it is a non-cancerous breast tumor, understanding its symptoms, causes, types, diagnosis, and treatment options is essential for anyone who may be dealing with it. In this comprehensive article, we will delve deep into the world of fibroadenoma, providing you with valuable insights and answers to frequently asked questions.

    What is Fibroadenoma?

    Fibroadenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) breast tumor that primarily occurs in women during their reproductive years. These tumors are made up of both glandular and connective tissue and can vary in size, shape, and texture. Fibroadenomas are typically painless and often feel like a firm, rubbery lump in the breast. They are one of the most common types of breast lumps found in women and are usually discovered during routine breast exams or self-examinations.

    What are the Symptoms of Fibroadenoma?

    • Breast Lump: The most common symptom of fibroadenoma is the presence of a distinct breast lump. This lump is usually painless and can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
    • Smooth Texture: Fibroadenomas often have a smooth, well-defined texture, making them distinguishable from the surrounding breast tissue.
    • Mobile Lump: Unlike cancerous tumors, fibroadenomas are typically movable and can be easily shifted within the breast.
    • Unilateral Occurrence: Fibroadenomas usually develop in one breast, not both simultaneously.
    • Changes in Size: Although fibroadenomas can remain stable in size, they may occasionally grow larger or become smaller over time.

    What are the Causes of Fibroadenoma?

    The exact causes of fibroadenomas are not well understood. However, several factors may contribute to their development:

    • Hormonal Fluctuations: Hormonal changes, especially during menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause, can influence the growth of fibroadenomas. These tumors tend to enlarge during pregnancy and may regress after menopause.

    • Genetics: There is evidence to suggest that genetics plays a role in the development of fibroadenomas. If you have a family history of these tumors, you may be at a higher risk.
    • Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Some studies have linked the use of hormone replacement therapy to an increased risk of developing fibroadenomas.
    • Age and Gender: Fibroadenomas are most common in women of reproductive age, and the risk decreases with age.

    What are the Types of Fibroadenoma?

    Fibroadenomas can be categorized into several types based on their characteristics:

    • Simple Fibroadenoma: This is the most common type and is characterized by a well-defined, non-cancerous lump in the breast.
    • Complex Fibroadenoma: These fibroadenomas have certain additional features that may cause concern, such as the presence of cysts or calcifications. Although still benign, they might require closer monitoring.
    • Giant Fibroadenoma: Giant fibroadenomas are much larger than typical fibroadenomas and can grow to several inches in size. Despite their size, they are non-cancerous.
    • Juvenile Fibroadenoma: This type primarily affects adolescents and young women. It tends to grow quickly but usually regresses on its own.

    How is Fibroadenoma Diagnosed?

    Diagnosing fibroadenoma typically involves a combination of the following:

    • Clinical Breast Examination: A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination of the breast to assess the lump's size, texture, and mobility.
    • Mammography: Mammograms are often used to detect fibroadenomas and distinguish them from other breast abnormalities.
    • Ultrasound: An ultrasound can provide detailed images of the breast tissue, helping to determine whether the lump is solid or filled with fluid.
    • Biopsy: If the lump's nature cannot be definitively determined through imaging, a biopsy may be performed. A small tissue sample is taken and examined under a microscope to confirm whether it is a fibroadenoma.

    How is Fibroadenoma Treated?

    Treatment options for fibroadenomas vary depending on factors such as size, symptoms, and patient preference. The main approaches include:

    • Observation: In cases where the fibroadenoma is small, painless, and causing no discomfort, a "wait and see" approach may be recommended. Regular monitoring through clinical exams and imaging can ensure that the lump remains stable.
    • Surgical Removal: If the fibroadenoma is large, causing pain, growing rapidly, or causing emotional distress, surgical removal (excision) may be recommended. This procedure is typically done as an outpatient surgery and is known as lumpectomy.

    How is Fibroadenoma Surgery Performed?

    The surgical removal of a fibroadenoma is called a lumpectomy. Here's an overview of the procedure:

    • Anesthesia: The patient is given local or general anesthesia to ensure they are comfortable and pain-free during the surgery.
    • Incision: A small incision is made near the fibroadenoma, and the lump is carefully removed while preserving the surrounding breast tissue.
    • Closure: The incision is closed with sutures, and the wound is dressed.
    • Recovery: Recovery time is usually short, and most patients can return to their normal activities within a few days to a week.

    Does Fibroadenoma Turn into Cancer?

    Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumors and do not turn into cancer. However, it's important to note that having a fibroadenoma may slightly increase the risk of developing breast cancer in the future. Therefore, regular breast health monitoring and screenings are crucial for early detection of any potential cancerous changes in the breast.

    Does Fibroadenoma Resolve on Its Own?

    In some cases, especially with certain types of fibroadenomas like juvenile fibroadenomas, the tumors may resolve on their own without the need for treatment. However, this is not always the case, and it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and guidance on management.

    Fibroadenoma is a common benign breast tumor that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. While it is non-cancerous, understanding its symptoms, causes, types, diagnosis, and treatment options is essential for those who may be dealing with it. If you suspect you have a fibroadenoma or have concerns about your breast health, it is crucial to seek medical attention promptly. With proper diagnosis and treatment, most individuals with fibroadenomas can lead healthy lives and enjoy peace of mind regarding their breast health.

    The content of the page is for informational purposes only, please consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.

    About the Author

    Aydan BİRİ

    Prof. M.D. Aydan BİRİ

    Written by on 16.09.2023

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