Thyroid glands are endocrine glands which are located in the middle-bottom part of the neck in the shape of a butterfly and which are averagely
18-20 grams. It adjusts body's metabolism with the hormones it releases. Alos the parafollicular C cells located in the rear side of the thyroid gland contributes in arranging the metabolism by releasing a hormone named calcitonin.
What are the symptoms?
Generally they are detected through the neck ultrasonography coindicentally. In this condition nodules are named "thyromegaly". The most of the patients with nodular thyromegaly's functions of thyroid glands are normal. This condition is called euthyroid nodular thyromegaly. If they are formed on the ground of chronical thyroiditis, symptoms of hypothyroidis like tiredness, exhaustion, dryness on the skin and hair and coarsening can happen. Some thyroid nodules gains autonomy getting out of the control of the mechanisms which are controlling the hormonal releases and they start releasing excessive amount of hormones. This condition is called nodular thyromegaly. This condition may lead to the symptoms like excessive weight loss, irritability, intolerance against heat, trembling of hands, diarrhea.
With the big nodules, symptoms like cosmetical disorders, dysphagia, dyspnoea and aphonia can be seen.
In the evaluation of the nodule, condition of functioning and whether it has cancer or not is examined. With this purpose examinations like TSH level measurement( level of T3 and T4 if necessary), thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasonography and along with USG, thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy are used.
No matter if they are big or small, all thyroid nodules are evaluated with the material microscopical's examination cytologic examination) which is taken with fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Nodules causing hyperthyroidism, pressure on the neck area and raising the doubt of cancer are treated with surgery.
How is thyroid cancer's treatment and following-up made?
If the patient with a detected nodule is a kid, teenager or an adult, and if his/her family has a cancer story, if their neck area is exposed to radiotherapy, if the nodule's being solid and immobile is detected, if the nodule grew rapidly in the recent times or lead into aphonia, the risk of cancer is a high probability.
Most of the thyroid cancer is with good prognosis and if it is treated properly they do not influence the life span. The basic of the thyroid cancer's treatment consists of thyroid glance's being removed with surgery. If the lymphatic gland has stiffness, neck dissection is made. It's very important that this surgery must be made by an experienced and competent surgical crew. Because patient's future depends on whether this surgery is made effectively or not.
Later on for the demolition of the remaining cancered cells, radioactive iodine treatment can be applied. After all these treatments are completed, patient should start using a proper dose of thyroid hormone replacement and patient is followed up in terms of relapse formation.